The Fifth Community Workshop on Achievability and Sustainability of Human Exploration of Mars: Three Scenarios for the 2030s.

Based on work accomplished in four previous workshops and other related activities, participants in this workshop developed three architectures that span the range of plausible options for human missions to Mars, with each of these missions leading eventually to crews that would be away from Earth for roughly 1,000 days.


The first scenario involves sortie missions, with a two-week stay on the surface.

The second concept is a semi-permanent base or “field camp” on the surface, with a stay of a year and a half, and is analogous to early Antarctic exploration.

The third concept is a sustained, permanent habitation analogous to current Antarctic exploration, setting the stage for potential settlements.

Credit: Bryan Versteeg




End states

This report discusses the trio of “End States,” as well as points of agreement and points of departure: Breakout 1: A Series of Sortie Missions; Breakout 2: Research Station on Mars; and Breakout 3: Permanent Human Habitation.






To read the full report, go to:

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